As confirmed elsewhere on this site, Jesus was sent [He Sent Jesus] by Father God for one main purpose ― to restore you to the Father-child, Heart-to-heart relationship with God as your Father for which you were designed.
Because Jesus not only successfully accomplished His mission, but triumphed [Jesus’ Triumph], we can draw near to the Creator of All Things [He Created All Things] without any fear.
One man illustrated this way:
One bitterly-cold winter night an old farmer heard an irregular thumping sound against the kitchen storm door. He went to a window and watched as tiny, shivering sparrows, attracted to the evident warmth inside, beat against the glass trying to get in to where it was warm.
Touched, the farmer put on  his heaviest warm clothing and marched through fresh snow to open the barn so that the struggling birds could find shelter there. He turned on the lights, tossed some hay in a corner, and sprinkled a trail of bread crumbs from his house to the barn to direct them to the warmth of the barn.
But the sparrows, which had scattered in all directions when he came out from the house, still hid in the darkness, afraid of him.
He tried various tactics: circling behind the birds to drive them toward the barn, tossing bread crumbs in the air toward them, returning inside his house to see if they’d fly into the barn on their own when he wasn’t near. Nothing worked.
He, a huge alien creature, had terrified them. The birds could not understand that he actually desired to help them.
He withdrew to his house and watched the doomed sparrows ― for they would certainly die in the cold ― through a window. As he stared, a thought hit him like lightning from a clear blue sky:
If only I could become a bird — one of them — just for a moment, he mourned. Then I wouldn’t frighten them. I could show them the way to warmth and safety.
At the same moment, another thought dawned on him. He had grasped the whole principle of the Incarnation ― the truth that Jesus became Man so that He could lead us into the warmth of Father God’s tender loving-kindness, protection, provision, nurture, and care.
A man’s becoming a bird is nothing compared to God [Who Is Like Him?], becoming a Man.
The Bible explains:
John 1:1-16
    1In the beginning [before all time] was the Word (Christ), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God Himself.
    2He was present originally with God.
    3All things were made and came into existence through Him; and without Him was not even one thing made that has come into being.
    4In Him was Life, and the Life was the Light of men.
    5And the Light shines on in the darkness, for the darkness has never overpowered it [put it out or absorbed it or appropriated it, and is unreceptive to it].
    6There came a man sent from God, whose name was John.
    7This man came to witness, that he might testify of the Light, that all men might believe in it [adhere to it, trust it, and rely upon it] through him.
    8He was not the Light himself, but came that he might bear witness regarding the Light.
    9There it was--the true Light [was then] coming into the world [the genuine, perfect, steadfast Light] that illumines every person.
    10He came into the world, and though the world was made through Him, the world did not recognize Him [did not know Him].
    11He came to that which belonged to Him [to His own--His domain, creation, things, world], and they who were His own did not receive Him and did not welcome Him.
    12But to as many as did receive and welcome Him, He gave the authority (power, privilege, right) to become the children of God, that is, to those who believe in (adhere to, trust in, and rely on) His name--
    13Who owe their birth neither to bloods nor to the will of the flesh [that of physical impulse] nor to the will of man [that of a natural father], but to God. [They are born of God!]
    14And the Word (Christ) became flesh (human, incarnate) and tabernacled (fixed His tent of flesh, lived awhile) among us; and we [actually] saw His glory (His honor, His majesty), such glory as an only begotten son receives from his father, full of grace (favor, loving-kindness) and truth.
    15John testified about Him and cried out, This was He of Whom I said, He Who comes after me has priority over me, for He was before me. [He takes rank above me, for He existed before I did. He has advanced before me, because He is my Chief.]
    16For out of His fullness (abundance) we have all received [all had a share and we were all supplied with] one grace after another and spiritual blessing upon spiritual blessing and even favor upon favor and gift [heaped] upon gift.

Colossians 2:9
    9For in Him [Jesus] the whole fullness of Deity (the Godhead) continues to dwell in bodily form [giving complete expression of the divine nature].

Colossians 1:19
    19For it has pleased [the Father] that all the divine fullness (the sum total of the divine perfection, powers, and attributes) should dwell in Him [Jesus] permanently.

Colossians 2:3
    3In Him [Jesus]  all the treasures of [divine] wisdom (comprehensive insight into the ways and purposes of God) and [all the riches of spiritual] knowledge and enlightenment are stored up and lie hidden.

Hebrews 1:3
    3He [Jesus] is the sole expression of the glory of God [the Light-being, the out-raying or radiance of the divine], and He is the perfect imprint and very image of [God's] nature, upholding and maintaining and guiding and propelling the universe by His mighty word of power. When He had by offering Himself accomplished our cleansing of sins and riddance of guilt, He sat down at the right hand of the divine Majesty on high,


At He Grieves you may have read that God chose a small, insignificant group of people to whom He could display His Heart of Love. Around 1400 years before Jesus was crucified, God said to this tribe:
Deuteronomy 7:6-8
    6For you are a holy and set-apart people to the Lord your God; the Lord your God has chosen you to be a special people to Himself out of all the peoples on the face of the earth.
    7The Lord did not set His love upon you and choose you because you were more in number than any other people, for you were the fewest of all people.
    8But because the Lord loves you and because He would keep the oath which He had sworn to your fathers, the Lord has brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.

This small tribe of people were known as the Jews and, protected by God and led by the man Moses, they were rescued from slavery in Egypt and delivered into freedom in Palestine.
Jesus was born a Jew in Palestine. He was dedicated at the Jewish Temple in accordance with Jewish Law. Something unusual occurred when Jesus was brought in to be dedicated according to both Jewish Law and traditions:
Luke 2:25-32
    25Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon, and this man was righteous and devout [cautiously and carefully observing the divine Law], and looking for the Consolation [Comfort] of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him.
    26And it had been divinely revealed (communicated) to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ (the Messiah, the Anointed One).
    27And prompted by the [Holy] Spirit, he came into the temple [enclosure]; and when the parents brought in the little child Jesus to do for Him what was customary according to the Law,
    28[Simeon] took Him up in his arms and praised and thanked God and said,
    29And now, Lord, You are releasing Your servant to depart (leave this world) in peace, according to Your word.
    30For with my [own] eyes I have seen Your Salvation,
    31Which You have ordained and prepared before (in the presence of) all peoples,
    32A Light for revelation.

Mary and Joseph followed the Jewish customs of the day and, as good parents, to the best of their understanding, taught Jesus the requirements of sacrifice and offering according to the Old Covenant [the Laws that Jews today follow]. When He was old enough, he accompanied his father to choose the sacrificial birds and lambs for the family’s sin offerings and take them to the priest, who would offer these in sacrifice to God so that the family’s sins would be covered by the blood of the sacrificial birds and lambs.
When Jesus was 12 years old, He proved that even then He was aware that He was the Son of God. Though he’d had no formal religious training, His remarkable understanding of the Jewish Law became evident.
As you read, pay attention to the name of the feast mentioned. We will mention this feast and what it celebrates later on.
Luke 2:40-52
    40And the Child [Jesus] grew and became strong in spirit, filled with wisdom; and the grace (favor and spiritual blessing) of God was upon Him.
    41Now His parents went to Jerusalem every year to the Passover Feast.
    42And when He was twelve years [old], they went up, as was their custom.
    43And when the Feast was ended, as they were returning, the boy Jesus remained behind in Jerusalem. Now His parents did not know this,
    44But, supposing Him to be in the caravan, they traveled on a day's journey; and [then] they sought Him [diligently, looking up and down for Him] among their [relatives] and acquaintances.
    45And when they failed to find Him, they went back to Jerusalem, looking for Him [up and down] all the way [looking everywhere for Him].
    46After three days they found Him [came upon Him] in the [court of the] temple, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions.
    47And all who heard Him were astonished and overwhelmed with bewildered wonder at His intelligence and understanding and His replies.
    48And when they [Joseph and Mary] saw Him, they were amazed; and His mother said to Him, Child, why have You treated us like this? Here Your father and I have been anxiously looking for You [worried and upset].
    49And He said to them, How is it that you had to look for Me? Did you not see and know that it is necessary [as a duty] for Me to be in My Father's house and [occupied] about My Father's business?
    50But they did not comprehend what He was saying to them.
    51And He went down with them and came to Nazareth and was [habitually] obedient to them; and his mother kept and closely and persistently guarded all these things in her heart.
    52And Jesus increased in wisdom (in broad and full understanding) and in stature and years, and in favor with God and man.

What feast was being celebrated in this story? [Passover.]
When all that Father God had sent Jesus to do was accomplished through Jesus’ life, Jesus determined to accomplish the mission for which He had been sent by God —to shed His blood and to die.
Jesus’ sole motivation for dying this was Love — Love for His Father God and Love for us — and He did this in obedience and in submission to His Father’s will.
As indisputably as a general sends a soldier into battle, Father God sent Jesus, and Jesus’ primary mission was to shed His blood.
Later on, we will investigate why Jesus had to shed His blood so that we could be restored to the rightful Father-child relationship with Father God for which we were designed.
Unless we ask Father God when we see him Face-to-face, we may never know for sure whether Father God planned for Jesus’ mission before or after Adam and Eve sinned.
[Since Father God exists apart from and outside of Time, the timing of His planning might not even be a consideration to Him. Our question about His timing proves we are humans. But then, God is already quite aware of that fact!]
Regardless of the timing of Father God’s decision — whether He planned from the moment He commanded “Let there be light!” or from the moment Eve disobeyed and bit the apple — His vast Heart planned in love for our rescue. “Rescue” is the perfect word.
Sin multiplied so tremendously that in the days of Noah Father God regretted that He’d ever made Man.
Genesis 6:5-9
    5The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination and intention of all human thinking was only evil continually.
    6And the Lord regretted that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved at heart.
    7So the Lord said, I will destroy, blot out, and wipe away mankind, whom I have created from the face of the ground--not only man, [but] the beasts and the creeping things and the birds of the air -- for it grieves Me and makes Me regretful that I have made them.
    8But Noah found grace (favor) in the eyes of the Lord.
    9This is the history of the generations of Noah. Noah was a just and righteous man, blameless in his [evil] generation; Noah walked [in habitual fellowship] with God.

And yet:
Romans 5:20
But then Law came in, [only] to expand and increase the trespass [making it more apparent and exciting opposition]. But where sin increased and abounded, grace (God's unmerited favor) has surpassed it and increased the more and superabounded.
If you are not familiar with the fascinating story of Noah, please consider reading it in the Bible of your choice in the first Book, at  Genesis 6 – 9.
From eternity, Father God had committed Himself to loving Man, and He found in Noah a man who listened, obeyed, and faithfully persevered. When God gave specific instructions, even though Noah did not understand the whys of the instructions, Noah obeyed. Hebrews says:
Some scholars say that Noah lived far from the sea and his obedience came at great personal cost ― and for a significant length of time ― he endured the ridicule of his neighbors for 100 years.
Noah’s practice of obeying God’s instructions without asking “why” might have kept Noah from questioning why, when the animals miraculously paraded into the ark two by two, those animals and birds which were “clean” according to Jewish Law paraded in by sevens.
Genesis 7:1-16
    1And the Lord said to Noah, Come with all your household into the ark, for I have seen you to be righteous (upright and in right standing) before Me in this generation.
    2Of every clean beast you shall receive and take with you seven pairs, the male and his mate, and of beasts that are not clean a pair of each kind, the male and his mate,
    3Also of the birds of the air seven pairs, the male and the female, to keep seed [their kind] alive over all the earth or land.
    4For in seven days I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights, and every living substance and thing that I have made I will destroy, blot out, and wipe away from the face of the earth.
    5And Noah did all that the Lord commanded him.
    6Noah was 600 years old when the flood of waters came upon the earth or land.
    7And Noah and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him went into the ark because of the waters of the flood.
    8Of clean animals and of animals that are not clean, and of birds and fowls, and of everything that creeps on the ground,
    9There went in two and two with Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
    10And after the seven days the floodwaters came upon the earth or land.
    11In the year 600 of Noah's life, in the seventeenth day of the second month, that same day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up and burst forth, and the windows and floodgates of the heavens were opened.
    12And it rained upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
    13On the very same day Noah and Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife and the three wives of his sons with them, went into the ark,
    14They and every [wild] beast according to its kind, all the livestock according to their kinds, every moving thing that creeps on the land according to its kind, and every fowl according to its kind, every winged thing of every sort.
    15And they went into the ark with Noah, two and two of all flesh in which there were the breath and spirit of life.
    16And they that entered, male and female of all flesh, went in as God had commanded [Noah]; and the Lord shut him in and closed [the door] round about him.

“Clean” in the context of Jewish religious Law [also known as Mosaic Law because God gave the Law to the Jewish people through Moses] means unblemished animals which are acceptable to God as sacrifices; the offering of clean sacrifices covers sin.
In other words, in advance of the great flood, God Himself made provision for Noah to offer pleasing sacrifice.
Sometime during the forty days and nights God gave Noah specific instructions concerning the offering of sacrifices because, upon leaving the ark, Noah offered sacrifices which were pleasing to God.
Genesis 8:20-21
    20And Noah built an altar to the Lord and took of every clean [four-footed] animal and of every clean fowl or bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
    21When the Lord smelled the pleasing odor [a scent of satisfaction to His heart], the Lord said to Himself, I will never again curse the ground because of man, for the imagination (the strong desire) of man's heart is evil and wicked from his youth; neither will I ever again smite [kill] and destroy every living thing, as I have done.

While the people were wandering in the wilderness for 40 years, God used Moses to write the first five books of the Old Testament [Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy]. These five books are the foundation of Jewish religious Law, now known as the Torah.
The Christian Old Testament begins with these five books, and then goes on to include the history of the Jewish nation, especially as it pertains to its relationship with God.
The words “Old Testament” can be considered equal to the words “Old Covenant.” “Testament” and “Covenant” are generally the same concept. Covenant is foundational to Jewish Law.


Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary explains covenant:
The technical language used [in the Torah] when covenants were made was “to cut a covenant.” This referred to ritual sacrifices that accompanied covenant making.
The shedding of blood in such rituals signified the solemnity of the covenant [how solemn and important the covenant was], each party [person or group] vowing not to break the covenant until death.
[When large animals were sacrificed in covenants between groups of people, often a three-year-old heifer, a three-year-old female goat, and a three-year-old ram were cut in two and placed on the ground apart from one another so that a path was made through the two halves. The leaders of both groups would then walk through the bloody sacrifices to prove their determination to keep the covenant until death.]
God's grace in relating to His people by initiating covenants with them is a major theme of the Bible. The Old Testament story can be related as the story of God making covenants with His people and responding to them out of that covenant relationship.
The New Testament can be described as the fulfillment of the Old Testament covenant hope in the establishment of God's new covenant in Jesus Christ.
[Copied from the Holman’s Online Bible Dictionary at]


The Old Testament can also be named The Old Covenant, and this Covenant was created through the shedding of blood. The New Testament can also be named The New Covenant. The New Covenant was created through the shedding of Blood. The Blood which sealed The New Covenant was the Blood of Jesus.
It’s important to note that both these blood covenants were initiated by God, and He made these covenants not only with these men and their wives and children, but with the generations and generations and generations who would be born after them.
Through the instructions given to Moses, God taught the importance of the blood — the death — of a pure [pure in accordance with the Old Testament ritual] substitute as a covering for sin.
Whether the sins were done intentionally and unintentionally, those people who wanted to be restored to relationship with God could select animals or birds that were “clean,” pure, without defect, bring them to the Jewish priests, and have these animals or birds sacrificed to God.
When the blood of the animals or birds flowed out on the altar following specific rituals performed by Jewish priests, the sins of those who brought the animals or birds to the priests were considered forgiven by God. The blood sacrifice “covered” their sins.
The shedding of blood for sacrifice always meant the offering of a life.
Leviticus 17:11
    11For the life (the animal soul) is in the blood, and I have given it for you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls [to cover your sins and redeem your souls]; for it is the blood that makes atonement, by reason of the life [which it represents].

The excellent website offers these insights. (The words and numbers in these parentheses refer to where these statements can be found in the Bible.)
Question: "Why did God require animal sacrifices in the Old Testament?"
Answer: God required animal sacrifices to provide a temporary covering of sins and to foreshadow the perfect and complete sacrifice of Jesus Christ (Leviticus 4:35, 5:10). Animal sacrifice is an important theme found throughout Scripture because “without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness” (Hebrews 9:22). When Adam and Eve sinned, animals were killed by God to provide clothing for them (Genesis 3:21). … After the flood receded, Noah sacrificed animals to God (Genesis 8:20-21).
God commanded the nation of Israel to perform numerous sacrifices according to certain procedures prescribed by God. First, the animal had to be spotless. Second, the person offering the sacrifice had to identify with the animal [had to believe that his sins could be forgiven upon the sacrifice of the animal]. Third, the person offering the animal had to inflict death upon it. When done in faith, this sacrifice provided a temporary covering of sins.
Another sacrifice called for on the Day of Atonement, described in Leviticus 16, demonstrates forgiveness and the removal of sin. The high priest was to take two male goats for a sin offering. One of the goats was sacrificed as a sin offering for the people of Israel (Leviticus 16:15), while the other goat was released into the wilderness (Leviticus 16:20-22). The sin offering provided forgiveness, while the other goat provided the removal of sin.
Why, then, do we no longer offer animal sacrifices today? Animal sacrifices have ended because Jesus Christ was the ultimate and perfect sacrifice. John the Baptist recognized this when he saw Jesus coming to be baptized and said, “Look, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29).
You may be asking yourself, why animals? What did they do wrong? That is the point—since the animals did no wrong, they died in place of the one performing the sacrifice. Jesus Christ also did no wrong but willingly gave Himself to die for the sins of mankind (1 Timothy 2:6). Jesus Christ took our sin upon Himself and died in our place. As 2 Corinthians 5:21 says, “God made him [Jesus] who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.” Through faith in what Jesus Christ accomplished on the cross, we can receive forgiveness.
In summation, animal sacrifices were commanded by God so that the individual could experience forgiveness of sin. The animal served as a substitute—that is, the animal died in place of the sinner, but only temporarily, which is why the sacrifices needed to be offered over and over. Animal sacrifices have stopped with Jesus Christ.
Jesus Christ was the ultimate sacrificial substitute once for all time (Hebrews 7:27) and is now the only mediator between God and humanity (1 Timothy 2:5). Animal sacrifices foreshadowed Christ’s sacrifice on our behalf. The only basis on which an animal sacrifice could provide forgiveness of sins is Christ who would sacrifice Himself for our sins, providing the forgiveness that animal sacrifices could only illustrate and foreshadow.
© Copyright 2002-2010 Got Questions Ministries,


The word “atone” in the “Day of Atonement” mentioned in this explanation is linked to “redeem.” Redeem means “to buy [purchase] or get back.”
It is because the soul, or life, is in the blood and that the blood is offered to God on the altar, that it has in it the power to redeem.
The Book of Hebrews explains:
Hebrews 9:18-22
    18So even the [old] first covenant was not inaugurated and ratified and put in force without the shedding of blood.
    19For when every command of the Law had been read out by Moses to all the people, he took the blood of slain calves and goats, together with water and scarlet wool and with a bunch of hyssop, and sprinkled both the Book (the roll of the Law and covenant) itself and all the people,
    20Saying these words: This is the blood that seals and ratifies the agreement (the testament, the covenant) which God commanded [me to deliver to] you.
    21And in the same way he sprinkled with the blood both the tabernacle and all the [sacred] vessels and appliances used in [divine] worship.
    22[In fact] under the [Jewish] Law almost everything is purified by means of blood, and without the shedding of blood there is neither release from sin and its guilt nor the remission (forgiveness and cancellation of the penalty) of the due and merited punishment for sins.

Under the Old Covenant, there could be no approach to Holy God, no fellowship with Him by faith, no enjoyment of His favor, apart from the shedding of blood.
Have you read the story of the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, their wanderings in the wilderness for 40 years, and their final deliverance from wandering into the Promised Land?
While we won’t spend time studying much more about the Old Covenant, we will look for a moment at the institution of the Jewish holiday called Passover, which began around 1400 B.C.
When Pharaoh would not let the nation of Israel leave Egypt, God sent one final judgment against Pharaoh. Pay attention to references to blood, since blood is key to this passage.
Exodus 12:1-41
    1The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,
    2This month shall be to you the beginning of months, the first month of the year to you.
    3Tell all the congregation of Israel, On the tenth day of this month they shall take every man a lamb or kid, according to [the size of] the family of which he is the father, a lamb or kid for each house.
    4And if the household is too small to consume the lamb, let him and his next door neighbor take it according to the number of persons, every man according to what each can eat shall make your count for the lamb.
    5Your lamb or kid shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; you shall take it from the sheep or the goats.
    6And you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall [each] kill [his] lamb in the evening.
    7They shall take of the blood and put it on the two side posts and on the lintel [above the door space] of the houses in which they shall eat [the Passover lamb].
    8They shall eat the flesh that night roasted; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it.
    9Eat not of it raw nor boiled at all with water, but roasted--its head, its legs, and its inner parts.
    10You shall let nothing of the meat remain until the morning; and the bones and unedible bits which remain of it until morning you shall burn with fire.
    11And you shall eat it thus: [as fully prepared for a journey] your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste. It is the Lord's Passover.
    12For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night and will smite [destroy] all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment [proving their helplessness]. I AM the Lord.
    13The blood shall be for a token or sign to you upon [the doorposts of] the houses where you are, [that] when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague shall be upon you to destroy you when I smite [destroy] the land of Egypt.
    14And this day shall be to you for a memorial. You shall keep it as a feast to the Lord throughout your generations, keep it as an ordinance forever.
    15[In celebration of the Passover in future years] seven days shall you eat unleavened [bread without yeast in it] bread; even the first day you shall put away leaven [symbolic of sin] out of your houses; for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel.
    16On the first day you shall hold a solemn and holy assembly, and on the seventh day there shall be a solemn and holy assembly; no kind of work shall be done in them, [except preparation of] that which every person must eat--that only may be done by you.
    17And you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this very day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore shall you observe this day throughout your generations as an ordinance forever.
    18In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread [and continue] until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.
    19Seven days no leaven [symbolic of corruption] shall be found in your houses; whoever eats what is leavened shall be excluded from the congregation of Israel, whether a stranger or native-born.
    20You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread [during that week].
    21Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said to them, Go forth, select and take a lamb according to your families and kill the Passover [lamb].
    22And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood in the basin, and touch the lintel above the door and the two side posts with the blood; and none of you shall go out of his house until morning.
    23For the Lord will pass through to slay the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood upon the lintel and the two side posts, the Lord will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to slay you.
    24You shall observe this rite for an ordinance to you and to your sons forever.
    25When you come to the land which the Lord will give you, as He has promised, you shall keep this service [tradition].
    26When your children shall say to you, What do you mean by this service?
    27You shall say, It is the sacrifice of the Lord's Passover, for He passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when He slew the Egyptians but spared our houses. And the people bowed their heads and worshiped.
    28The Israelites went and, as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.
    29At midnight the Lord slew every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the prisoner in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock.
    30Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
    31He[Pharaoh]  called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, get out from among my people, both you and the Israelites; and go, serve the Lord, as you said.
    32Also take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone! And [ask your God to] bless me also.
    33The Egyptians were urgent with the people to depart, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We are all dead men.
    34The people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading bowls being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders.
    35The Israelites did according to the word of Moses; and they [urgently] asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver and of gold, and clothing.
    36The Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they gave them what they asked. And they stripped the Egyptians [of jewels, silver, gold, and clothing]].
    37The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about 600,000 men on foot, besides women and children.
    38And a mixed multitude went also with them, and very much livestock, both flocks and herds.
    39They baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought from Egypt; it was not leavened because they were driven from Egypt and could not delay, nor had they prepared for themselves any food.
    40Now the time the Israelites dwelt in Egypt was 430 years.
    41At the end of the 430 years, even that very day, all the hosts of the Lord went out of Egypt.